pygame.display

pygame.display
pygame module to control the display window and screen
pygame.display.init Initialize the display module
pygame.display.quit Uninitialize the display module
pygame.display.get_init Returns True if the display module has been initialized
pygame.display.set_mode Initialize a window or screen for display
pygame.display.get_surface Get a reference to the currently set display surface
pygame.display.flip Update the full display Surface to the screen
pygame.display.update Update portions of the screen for software displays
pygame.display.get_driver Get the name of the pygame display backend
pygame.display.Info Create a video display information object
pygame.display.get_wm_info Get information about the current windowing system
pygame.display.list_modes Get list of available fullscreen modes
pygame.display.mode_ok Pick the best color depth for a display mode
pygame.display.gl_get_attribute Get the value for an OpenGL flag for the current display
pygame.display.gl_set_attribute Request an OpenGL display attribute for the display mode
pygame.display.get_active Returns True when the display is active on the display
pygame.display.iconify Iconify the display surface
pygame.display.toggle_fullscreen Switch between fullscreen and windowed displays
pygame.display.set_gamma Change the hardware gamma ramps
pygame.display.set_gamma_ramp Change the hardware gamma ramps with a custom lookup
pygame.display.set_icon Change the system image for the display window
pygame.display.set_caption Set the current window caption
pygame.display.get_caption Get the current window caption
pygame.display.set_palette Set the display color palette for indexed displays

This module offers control over the pygame display. Pygame has a single display Surface that is either contained in a window or runs full screen. Once you create the display you treat it as a regular Surface. Changes are not immediately visible onscreen, you must choose one of the two flipping functions to update the actual display.

The origin of the display, where x = 0, and y = 0 is the top left of the screen. Both axis increase positively towards the bottom right of the screen.

The pygame display can actually be initialized in one of several modes. By default the display is a basic software driven framebuffer. You can request special modules like hardware acceleration and OpenGL support. These are controlled by flags passed to pygame.display.set_mode().

Pygame can only have a single display active at any time. Creating a new one with pygame.display.set_mode() will close the previous display. If precise control is needed over the pixel format or display resolutions, use the functions pygame.display.mode_ok(), pygame.display.list_modes(), and pygame.display.Info() to query information about the display.

Once the display Surface is created, the functions from this module effect the single existing display. The Surface becomes invalid if the module is uninitialized. If a new display mode is set, the existing Surface will automatically switch to operate on the new display.

Then the display mode is set, several events are placed on the pygame event queue. pygame.QUIT is sent when the user has requested the program to shutdown. The window will receive pygame.ACTIVEEVENT events as the display gains and loses input focus. If the display is set with the pygame.RESIZABLE flag, pygame.VIDEORESIZE events will be sent when the user adjusts the window dimensions. Hardware displays that draw direct to the screen will get pygame.VIDEOEXPOSE events when portions of the window must be redrawn.

pygame.display.init()
Initialize the display module
init() -> None

Initializes the pygame display module. The display module cannot do anything until it is initialized. This is usually handled for you automatically when you call the higher level pygame.init().

Pygame will select from one of several internal display backends when it is initialized. The display mode will be chosen depending on the platform and permissions of current user. Before the display module is initialized the environment variable SDL_VIDEODRIVER can be set to control which backend is used. The systems with multiple choices are listed here.

Windows : windib, directx
Unix    : x11, dga, fbcon, directfb, ggi, vgl, svgalib, aalib

On some platforms it is possible to embed the pygame display into an already existing window. To do this, the environment variable SDL_WINDOWID must be set to a string containing the window id or handle. The environment variable is checked when the pygame display is initialized. Be aware that there can be many strange side effects when running in an embedded display.

It is harmless to call this more than once, repeated calls have no effect.

pygame.display.quit()
Uninitialize the display module
quit() -> None

This will shut down the entire display module. This means any active displays will be closed. This will also be handled automatically when the program exits.

It is harmless to call this more than once, repeated calls have no effect.

pygame.display.get_init()
Returns True if the display module has been initialized
get_init() -> bool

Returns True if the pygame.displaypygame module to control the display window and screen module is currently initialized.

pygame.display.set_mode()
Initialize a window or screen for display
set_mode(resolution=(0,0), flags=0, depth=0) -> Surface

This function will create a display Surface. The arguments passed in are requests for a display type. The actual created display will be the best possible match supported by the system.

The resolution argument is a pair of numbers representing the width and height. The flags argument is a collection of additional options. The depth argument represents the number of bits to use for color.

The Surface that gets returned can be drawn to like a regular Surface but changes will eventually be seen on the monitor.

If no resolution is passed or is set to (0, 0) and pygame uses SDL version 1.2.10 or above, the created Surface will have the same size as the current screen resolution. If only the width or height are set to 0, the Surface will have the same width or height as the screen resolution. Using a SDL version prior to 1.2.10 will raise an exception.

It is usually best to not pass the depth argument. It will default to the best and fastest color depth for the system. If your game requires a specific color format you can control the depth with this argument. Pygame will emulate an unavailable color depth which can be slow.

When requesting fullscreen display modes, sometimes an exact match for the requested resolution cannot be made. In these situations pygame will select the closest compatible match. The returned surface will still always match the requested resolution.

The flags argument controls which type of display you want. There are several to choose from, and you can even combine multiple types using the bitwise or operator, (the pipe “|” character). If you pass 0 or no flags argument it will default to a software driven window. Here are the display flags you will want to choose from:

pygame.FULLSCREEN    create a fullscreen display
pygame.DOUBLEBUF     recommended for HWSURFACE or OPENGL
pygame.HWSURFACE     hardware accelerated, only in FULLSCREEN
pygame.OPENGL        create an OpenGL renderable display
pygame.RESIZABLE     display window should be sizeable
pygame.NOFRAME       display window will have no border or controls

For example:

# Open a window on the screen
screen_width=700
screen_height=400
screen=pygame.display.set_mode([screen_width,screen_height])
pygame.display.get_surface()
Get a reference to the currently set display surface
get_surface() -> Surface

Return a reference to the currently set display Surface. If no display mode has been set this will return None.

pygame.display.flip()
Update the full display Surface to the screen
flip() -> None

This will update the contents of the entire display. If your display mode is using the flags pygame.HWSURFACE and pygame.DOUBLEBUF, this will wait for a vertical retrace and swap the surfaces. If you are using a different type of display mode, it will simply update the entire contents of the surface.

When using an pygame.OPENGL display mode this will perform a gl buffer swap.

pygame.display.update()
Update portions of the screen for software displays
update(rectangle=None) -> None
update(rectangle_list) -> None

This function is like an optimized version of pygame.display.flip() for software displays. It allows only a portion of the screen to updated, instead of the entire area. If no argument is passed it updates the entire Surface area like pygame.display.flip().

You can pass the function a single rectangle, or a sequence of rectangles. It is more efficient to pass many rectangles at once than to call update multiple times with single or a partial list of rectangles. If passing a sequence of rectangles it is safe to include None values in the list, which will be skipped.

This call cannot be used on pygame.OPENGL displays and will generate an exception.

pygame.display.get_driver()
Get the name of the pygame display backend
get_driver() -> name

Pygame chooses one of many available display backends when it is initialized. This returns the internal name used for the display backend. This can be used to provide limited information about what display capabilities might be accelerated. See the SDL_VIDEODRIVER flags in pygame.display.set_mode() to see some of the common options.

pygame.display.Info()
Create a video display information object
Info() -> VideoInfo

Creates a simple object containing several attributes to describe the current graphics environment. If this is called before pygame.display.set_mode() some platforms can provide information about the default display mode. This can also be called after setting the display mode to verify specific display options were satisfied. The VidInfo object has several attributes:

hw:         True if the display is hardware accelerated
wm:         True if windowed display modes can be used
video_mem:  The megabytes of video memory on the display. This is 0 if unknown
bitsize:    Number of bits used to store each pixel
bytesize:   Number of bytes used to store each pixel
masks:      Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels
shifts:     Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels
losses:     Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels
blit_hw:    True if hardware Surface blitting is accelerated
blit_hw_CC: True if hardware Surface colorkey blitting is accelerated
blit_hw_A:  True if hardware Surface pixel alpha blitting is accelerated
blit_sw:    True if software Surface blitting is accelerated
blit_sw_CC: True if software Surface colorkey blitting is accelerated
blit_sw_A:  True if software Surface pixel alpha blitting is acclerated
current_h, current_h:  Width and height of the current video mode, or of the
  desktop mode if called before the display.set_mode is called.
  (current_h, current_w are available since SDL 1.2.10, and pygame 1.8.0)
  They are -1 on error, or if an old SDL is being used.
pygame.display.get_wm_info()
Get information about the current windowing system
get_wm_info() -> dict

Creates a dictionary filled with string keys. The strings and values are arbitrarily created by the system. Some systems may have no information and an empty dictionary will be returned. Most platforms will return a “window” key with the value set to the system id for the current display.

New with pygame 1.7.1

pygame.display.list_modes()
Get list of available fullscreen modes
list_modes(depth=0, flags=pygame.FULLSCREEN) -> list

This function returns a list of possible dimensions for a specified color depth. The return value will be an empty list if no display modes are available with the given arguments. A return value of -1 means that any requested resolution should work (this is likely the case for windowed modes). Mode sizes are sorted from biggest to smallest.

If depth is 0, SDL will choose the current/best color depth for the display. The flags defaults to pygame.FULLSCREEN, but you may need to add additional flags for specific fullscreen modes.

pygame.display.mode_ok()
Pick the best color depth for a display mode
mode_ok(size, flags=0, depth=0) -> depth

This function uses the same arguments as pygame.display.set_mode(). It is used to determine if a requested display mode is available. It will return 0 if the display mode cannot be set. Otherwise it will return a pixel depth that best matches the display asked for.

Usually the depth argument is not passed, but some platforms can support multiple display depths. If passed it will hint to which depth is a better match.

The most useful flags to pass will be pygame.HWSURFACE, pygame.DOUBLEBUF, and maybe pygame.FULLSCREEN. The function will return 0 if these display flags cannot be set.

pygame.display.gl_get_attribute()
Get the value for an OpenGL flag for the current display
gl_get_attribute(flag) -> value

After calling pygame.display.set_mode() with the pygame.OPENGL flag, it is a good idea to check the value of any requested OpenGL attributes. See pygame.display.gl_set_attribute() for a list of valid flags.

pygame.display.gl_set_attribute()
Request an OpenGL display attribute for the display mode
gl_set_attribute(flag, value) -> None

When calling pygame.display.set_mode() with the pygame.OPENGL flag, Pygame automatically handles setting the OpenGL attributes like color and doublebuffering. OpenGL offers several other attributes you may want control over. Pass one of these attributes as the flag, and its appropriate value. This must be called before pygame.display.set_mode()

The OPENGL flags are;

GL_ALPHA_SIZE, GL_DEPTH_SIZE, GL_STENCIL_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_RED_SIZE,
GL_ACCUM_GREEN_SIZE,  GL_ACCUM_BLUE_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_ALPHA_SIZE,
GL_MULTISAMPLEBUFFERS, GL_MULTISAMPLESAMPLES, GL_STEREO
pygame.display.get_active()
Returns True when the display is active on the display
get_active() -> bool

After pygame.display.set_mode() is called the display Surface will be visible on the screen. Most windowed displays can be hidden by the user. If the display Surface is hidden or iconified this will return False.

pygame.display.iconify()
Iconify the display surface
iconify() -> bool

Request the window for the display surface be iconified or hidden. Not all systems and displays support an iconified display. The function will return True if successful.

When the display is iconified pygame.display.get_active() will return False. The event queue should receive a ACTIVEEVENT event when the window has been iconified.

pygame.display.toggle_fullscreen()
Switch between fullscreen and windowed displays
toggle_fullscreen() -> bool

Switches the display window between windowed and fullscreen modes. This function only works under the unix x11 video driver. For most situations it is better to call pygame.display.set_mode() with new display flags.

pygame.display.set_gamma()
Change the hardware gamma ramps
set_gamma(red, green=None, blue=None) -> bool

Set the red, green, and blue gamma values on the display hardware. If the green and blue arguments are not passed, they will both be the same as red. Not all systems and hardware support gamma ramps, if the function succeeds it will return True.

A gamma value of 1.0 creates a linear color table. Lower values will darken the display and higher values will brighten.

pygame.display.set_gamma_ramp()
Change the hardware gamma ramps with a custom lookup
set_gamma_ramp(red, green, blue) -> bool

Set the red, green, and blue gamma ramps with an explicit lookup table. Each argument should be sequence of 256 integers. The integers should range between 0 and 0xffff. Not all systems and hardware support gamma ramps, if the function succeeds it will return True.

pygame.display.set_icon()
Change the system image for the display window
set_icon(Surface) -> None

Sets the runtime icon the system will use to represent the display window. All windows default to a simple pygame logo for the window icon.

You can pass any surface, but most systems want a smaller image around 32x32. The image can have colorkey transparency which will be passed to the system.

Some systems do not allow the window icon to change after it has been shown. This function can be called before pygame.display.set_mode() to create the icon before the display mode is set.

pygame.display.set_caption()
Set the current window caption
set_caption(title, icontitle=None) -> None

If the display has a window title, this function will change the name on the window. Some systems support an alternate shorter title to be used for minimized displays.

pygame.display.get_caption()
Get the current window caption
get_caption() -> (title, icontitle)

Returns the title and icontitle for the display Surface. These will often be the same value.

pygame.display.set_palette()
Set the display color palette for indexed displays
set_palette(palette=None) -> None

This will change the video display color palette for 8bit displays. This does not change the palette for the actual display Surface, only the palette that is used to display the Surface. If no palette argument is passed, the system default palette will be restored. The palette is a sequence of RGB triplets.